Review – 12/3/17

  1. Intestinal bacteria help determine healthy bowel function – they play a vital role in controlling peristalsis (colonic contractions that help move things through the GI tract). Scientific Reports


  1. Antibiotic exposure in mothers increases the risk of inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s and ulcerative colitis) in their offspring. Scientists have also shown that the antibiotic-induced changes in microbial genes are passed down from mothers to their offspring – and this most likely explains how IBD is hereditary; not from human genes, but from microbial genes that are altered (due to antibiotic exposure) and passed down from one generation to the next. Nature Microbiology


  1. Long-term PPI use leads to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, or SIBO. If you’ve been taking PPI’s long-term and suspect you may have SIBO, check out Dr. Chutkan’s course, The Gutbliss Guide to SIBO, for specific instructions on how to obtain real and lasting relief. Journal of Breath Research


  1. While the study of diet and how it alters the gut microbiome is important, dietary impact on microbial status – and in turn, health – is an imperfect science. Researchers point out that a wide range of variability exists within the individual when looking at gut bacteria and how the gut microbiota changes in response to dietary interventions – this variability makes it difficult to arrive at conclusive and clinically relevant findings. Nutrition Reviews


  1. Should those donating stool for fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) be screened for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)? Scientists found that those receiving stool from individuals who tested positive for SIBO, experienced significantly more GI symptoms than those who received stool from SIBO-negative donors. Digestive Diseases & Sciences


  1. Diet alters intestinal permeability and colitis severity. In a recent study scientists tested over 40 distinct diets and found that protein and fiber concentrations had the most significant effects on permeability and inflammation – psyllium, pectin, and cellulose fiber decreased severity, while methylcellulose and increased protein concentrations (in some mice) elevated severity. Gastroenterology


  1. Antibiotic therapy during the neonatal period (birth to 1 month old) is associated with possible increased risk of disease and antibiotic resistance. In a review of the literature, prolonged antibiotic treatment was associated with reduced gut bacteria diversity (a marker of long-term health), while antibiotic treatment in general was associated with reduced colonization rates of protective bacteria. All studies included in the review showed a direct link between antibiotic treatment and antibiotic resistance. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy


  1. Fusobacteria nucleatum, one of the most prevalent bacteria strains found in colon cancer tumors, plays an integral role in contributing to – and possibly causing – colon cancer. When antibiotics that kill the bacteria are administered, colon tumor growth slows significantly. Are antibiotics the answer to colon cancer prevention and therapy? Researchers say no. Antibiotics not only kill Fusobacteria but lots of other bacteria that could be beneficial to the host’s health. Yet scientists continue to explore other antimicrobial therapies that could be successful in treating colon cancer. Science


  1. Significant differences exist in the first trimester vaginal microbiome between women who carry their babies to term and those who have pre-term deliveries. Scientists have created a promising clinical risk assessment for pre-term birth based on these findings. Scientific Reports


  1. Gut bacteria help regulate blood pressure, one of our longest standing markers of good health. A recent study illustrates that transplanting specific gut bacteria can induce hypertension in rats. Physiological Genomics


By: Leslie Ann Berg, MSPH