Review – 2/5/18

  1. Severe periodontitis (inflammation of tissue around the teeth) is linked to increased cancer risk (highest for lung and colorectal cancers), with a 24% increased risk in those with severe periodontitis compared to controls. Could differences in mouth microbes be the culprit? A recent study also linked alterations in the oral microbiome to autism spectrum disorder. Journal of The National Cancer Institute


  1. Almond consumption and processing has significant impacts on the gut microbiome, including gut bacteria relative abundance and composition. Researchers tested fecal samples of study participants consuming 1.5 servings of almonds daily in the form of whole almonds, roasted almonds, chopped almonds, or almond butter for 3 weeks. Nutrients


  1. While eating disorders are categorized as psychological disorders, recent studies show that gut bacteria could play a major role in the genesis and progression of these diseases. Nutrients


  1. Physical exercise has significant effects on atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCD) – the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide – through its impact on the gut microbiome. Recent studies show that exercise impacts gut bacteria diversity, distribution and metabolites linked to ASCD. Lipids in Health & Disease


  1. The evolution of the gut microbiome across 4 populations in the Himalayas maps out microbial alterations as communities move toward a more modern lifestyle, illustrating how dependency on farming, modern hygiene and medical practices can impact microbial makeup. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory



  1. Decreased microbial diversity is linked to a decline in health, but why? For the first time, researchers uncover the mechanisms behind the benefits of gut bacteria diversity – increased species diversity leads to metabolic efficiency and a higher resilience within small microbial communities. Scientific Reports


  1. There’s more to microbial composition than just diversity when assessing what makes up a healthy microbiome – the order and timing of a species arrival (referred to as ‘priority effects’) determines how species impact one another and can have significant effects on microbial communities in the developing microbiome during childhood. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology



  1. The human gut virome could be more impactful on human health and disease than gut bacteria, the latest research suggests. Comprised of bacteriophages, animal-cell viruses, endogenous retroviruses, and viruses causing persistent and latent infections, scientists believe that the gut virome’s biological components could “outcompete” those of gut bacteria and the virome could contain a more “diverse genetic entity”. International Journal of Clinical Virology


  1. Have you been diagnosed with or suspect you may have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)? Here is the latest review on how an imbalanced microbiome is linked to IBS, as well as the latest probiotic and dietary therapies. Foods


  1. Fermentable fiber like inulin protects against high fat diet (HFD) induced metabolic syndrome and suppresses obesity. These health benefits are not mediated by the hypothesized short chain fatty acids, but instead, inulin acts as food for beneficial gut bacteria and in turn restores the microbiota via intestinal absorptive cell receptors that play a primary role in immune function. Cell Host & Microbe

By: Leslie Ann Berg, MSPH