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Microbiome

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Clinical implications and future possibilities of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) are identified. FMT is an innovative therapy with incredible potential for treating gastrointestinal and other microbially-driven conditions. While more research and fine tuning is needed before it becomes a mainstream therapy, its clinical implications are growing. This latest review study identifies FMT as a treatment for ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, and hepatic encephalopathy. The study predicts that FMT will be an accepted treatment for many other conditions in the future. Annual Review of Medicine Takeaway: While researchers are excited about the potential benefits, other studies show underwhelming results from FMT. Additional research, especially in the area of super donors is needed, as well as other environmental factors that could negatively impact fecal transplant therapy. Coupling FMT with nutrition interventions that focus on high fiber, whole foods and plant-based diets is imperative for success, as is minimizing/eliminating medication use (especially…

In an attempt to catalog all bacteria strains that reside in the human gut, scientists have identified, isolated, and preserved 7,758 bacteria strains from 90 study participants over a two-year period. The metabolic and genetic functions for each strain have also been identified. The strains were pulled from the 6 main bacteria families, or phyla, that reside in the gut, including Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Euryarchaeota, and Verrucomicrobia. A dozen study participants provided samples over a prolonged period of time (up to 2 years), which allowed researchers to observe the dynamic interactions among strains over time. Furthering the research, scientists will look at the gut microbiomes of more diverse populations worldwide, including those who live in non-industrialized environments. Scientists believe that cataloging the bacteria strains that live in the gut will allow for a better understanding of how bacteria interact metabolically and genetically, and could lead to harnessing the microbiome…

At Gutbliss we consider the gut to be the innermost lining of your skin. Research supports the strong association between gut health and skin health, so it’s only natural that something we know to be unhealthy for the gut, most likely also negatively impacts the skin. Sugar, one of the most beloved food groups of the Western diet, is no exception. Many of us struggle with excessive sugar consumption, or even sugar addiction. When trying to give up a vice, it can be helpful to know exactly why it’s so bad for us. With that in mind, let’s dive into sugar’s impact on the gut and other biological functions in the body… and in turn, the skin. (The USDA recommends that no more than 10% of your daily calories should come from added sugar. Based on a 2,000-calorie diet, this would be anything over 200 calories, or about 50 grams…

…and this can really matter when we’re talking about cancer medication. Immunotherapy is a type of drug therapy used to treat cancer that focuses on boosting the immune system. Without the harmful side effects that come with chemotherapy, immunotherapy is the preferred method to treat many cancers today, yet positive response rates to this type of therapy fall somewhere south of 60%. Why so low? Because gut bacteria play a heavy role in metabolism and immunity, they can ultimately determine the fate of a medication’s effectiveness. And in those who suffer from dysbiosis (imbalanced gut bacteria), the likelihood of a positive response to immunotherapy is lower than those with a balanced, diverse microbiome. In fact, both human and animal studies show that taking antibiotics within a short timeframe before starting immunotherapy results in lower response rates. Researchers have also compared the microbiomes of those who respond well to immunotherapy and…

For the first time ever, researchers discover a strong association between chronic pain and gut bacteria. Fibromyalgia, a disease affecting approximately 4% of the population and growing, is characterized as full-body, chronic pain along with fatigue and cognitive impairment. Compared to a control group, a cohort of patients with fibromyalgia possessed a remarkably different microbiome, including 20 different gut bacteria species in either greater or lesser quantities. Scientists utilized techniques to ensure these microbial differences weren’t due to other factors, such as diet, age, medications, physical activity, etc. Greater microbial alterations were associated with more severe disease symptoms. PAIN Takeaway: While this groundbreaking study shows a strong link between the microbiome and chronic, widespread pain, like with most diseases, scientists are uncertain whether the microbial alterations are the cause of the disease or a result. Further research will hopefully uncover this distinction, as well as help identify possible microbial diagnostic…

Cultivating a healthy microbiome plays a key role in preventing eczema. A review study looks at the effects of manipulating microbial health to prevent and treat eczema, specifically in infants. The study conducted analyses of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics (probiotics and prebiotics together) for eczema prevention. Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology  Results of the study show that scientific evidence supports supplementation with Lactobacillus strains prenatally, followed by long-term (greater than 6 months) postnatal supplementation in infants for eczema prevention. Long-term (greater than 6 months) postnatal prebiotic supplementation has also been successful for eczema prevention in formula-fed infants. Takeaway: Those infants at high risk for developing eczema react most readily to these preventative measures. It’s important to keep in mind that in order to reap the benefits from prebiotic and probiotic supplementation, both in the womb and post-delivery, maternal and infant nutrition is key. Microbiome-focused supplements are only as powerful…

“Exercise is one of the best ways to improve your gut health. Like I’m fond of saying, if you’re not moving, neither are your bowels. Runners and other people who exercise regularly actually have better bowel movements, not as hard, bigger, and more frequent – what I like to call stool nirvana. A January 2018 University of Illinois study sheds light on why exercise might be so important for our gut, as well as overall health. The study found that exercise alone can positively alter the gut microbiome…” Watch the video to learn more! While exercise has incredible benefits for the microbiome, can it help you lose weight? Check out our article Does Exercise Help You Lose Weight.

The gut microbiome & its relation to weight loss There’s lots of hype surrounding the gut microbiome and weight loss. Studies show that when transferring microbial samples from obese individuals to germ-free mice, the mice gain weight, illustrating that the gut microbiome can play a role in determining weight. In fact, the more we study the microbiome, the more we realize that our gut bacteria hold the key to many functions and metabolic pathways associated with weight management. Gut bacteria: Influence how much dietary fat is absorbed by the intestines, affecting fat storage.Play a key role in inflammation, producing lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Mouse studies show that when mice are given LPS, they gain weight equivalent to the weight gain from a high fat diet.Protect against inflammation by helping to maintain a strong gut barrier. The specific species involved in gut barrier function include Bifidobacteria and Akkermansia. Increasing the integrity of the…

Urinary tract infections (UTIs), once easily curable, now affect millions and are much more challenging to treat, posing serious health risks. A July 13th New York Times article highlights the UTI treatment challenges, which spawn primarily from drug-resistant antibiotics. E. coli bacteria is the most common cause of UTIs, and it’s estimated that approximately one third of E. coli strains are resistant to Bactrim, the most common antibiotic treatment, and one fifth are resistant to the other 5 most common treatment drugs. Women, who during reproductive years are 50 times more likely to contract a UTI than men due to the anatomical proximity of the urethra to the rectum, are commonly going back for 2 and 3 rounds of antibiotic treatments, and are even being admitted into the hospital for intravenous antibiotics. UTIs that go untreated have the ability to travel into the kidneys and even the blood, which can…

 A new study finds proof that Parkinson’s disease begins in the gut. After injecting specific proteins into the guts of mice, the manifestations of Parkinson’s were observed a month later. The mouse model showed how a protein (alpha synuclein) can travel from the gut to the brain via the vagus nerve and resulted in Parkinson’s symptoms rarely seen in previous animal studies. Neuron Takeaway: While this study acts as the first proof of Parkinson’s gut origin, the hypothesis has been around since 2003 and was originally presented by Dr. Heiko Braak. Scientists are now hoping to conduct studies that uncover how and why this process begins in the first place.